de Havilland Mosquito Prototype (W4050)de Havilland Mosquito Prototype (W4050)de Havilland Mosquito Prototype (W4050)

de Havilland Mosquito Prototype (W4050[@ de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre]

Nicknamed ‘The Wooden Wonder’, the Mosquito was a remarkable aircraft for its time; not only was it made largely of wood [de Havilland had noted that except in torsion, wood's strength for weight was as great as that of duralumin or steel] but it was designed as an unarmed bomber, depending on its superior speed [~ 370mph] to escape enemy fighters.    Not surprisingly, de Havilland's proposal was unceremoniously rejected; the Air Ministry was simply not interested in an unarmed bomber concept.   When it entered RAF service in 1941 it was (and remained to 1944) the fastest aircraft operated by the RAF.   However work begun as a private venture and the first prototype, W4050, of Geoffrey de Havilland’s was completed in bomber configuration and flew for the first time in the manufacturer’s markings E-0234 on 25th November 1940 from Hatfield.  The second prototype, W4052, was equipped as a night fighter and made its first flight on 15th May 1941.  The third to be completed, W4051, as a photo-reconnaissance aircraft and flew on 10th June 1941.  All three prototypes were powered by Merlin 21s with two speed, single stage superchargers and were fitted with de Havilland hydromatic propellers.

Built at Salisbury Hall, Hertfordshire, W4050 was dismantled and moved to Hatfield by road on 3rd November 1940, just over a year after the Mosquito design team moved to Salisbury hall from nearby Hatfield.   The aircraft was painted overall yellow for easy identification and carried the class B markings E0234.   After reassembly, initial engine tests were performed on 19th November and the first taxiing tests five days later.   Geoffrey de Havilland Jnr., with John E.  Walker as observer, flew W4050 for the first time at 3.45pm on 25th November.  Following 35 hours of initial trials at Hatfield, the aircraft, by now officially adopted as W4050, was delivered to Boscombe Down on 19th February 1941 with camouflaged top surfaces and prototype markings for official service trials.  Alan Wheeler was the first test pilot at Boscombe Down to fly W4050.  Following a ground accident on 24th February in which the tail wheel caught in a rut fracturing the fuselage just aft of the wing trailing edge, the decision was made by Fred Plumb, de Havilland's Chief Engineer, to replace the fuselage with one built for W4051, the Photo Reconnaissance prototype.  On completion of the change, W4050 was flown back to Hatfield for some adjustments on 14th March, returning to Boscombe Down four days later with extended engine nacelles fitted for handling trials.   On the aircraft's 100th flight on 4th May, a maximum level speed of 392 mph was achieved at 22,000 ft with an all-up weight of 16,000 lb.  During further handling tests at Boscombe Down, the fuselage was fractured again in a heavy landing.  This time the damage was repaired with an irregular patch on the port fuselage side just behind the wing trailing edge that is still visible today.  Service trials were completed on the prototype on 23rd May 1941, to be continued on more representative production aircraft.  On return to Hatfield, W4050 was used by de Havilland for a variety of tests in a number of configuration including stall tests, the effects of flying with the bomb doors open and with a mock-up turret fitted immediately behind the cockpit.

In late October 1941 W4050 was temporarily grounded for the fitting of more powerful Merlin 61 engines, eventually flying in this form on 20th June 1942 and attaining an altitude of 40,000 ft on its second flight.  Merlin 77s were then fitted with flight trials recommencing on 8th October, and a top speed of 439 mph was achieved in November, the highest by any Mosquito.  Development flying of the prototype reduced during 1943, but it did spend a short period with Rolls Royce from 1st March until 10th June.   In 1944 the prototype was grounded and allocated to de Havilland apprentice ground training. 

W4050 took part in the filming of 'The Mosquito Story' in 1945, the film made by de Havilland on the development, production and use of the Mosquito, following which it moved back to Salisbury Hall for use by the de Havilland Aeronautical School in 1946.  W4050 appeared in the SBAC displays at Radlett in 1946 and 1947, surrounded by a selection of the typical weapon loads.   W4050 was declared Category E and struck off charge on 21st June 1947.   W.J.S.  (Bill) Baird, the Assistant Public Relations Manager at Hatfield, had become aware of the historical significance of the prototype Mosquito as early as 1945.  When the aircraft was ordered  to be destroyed he saved it from being burned, having it dismantled and then moving it first to Panshanger, then Hatfield for a short time, to the factory at Chester and finally back to off airfield storage at Hatfield. In the meantime, Walter J.  Goldsmith, a retired Army Officer, had bought Salisbury Hall and upon realising that it was the birthplace of the Mosquito asked whether W4050 could go on display in the grounds.  Thus a permanent home was found back at Salisbury Hall, where it was put on public display on 15th May 1959.  At the time the photographs was taken W4050 was undergoing extensive restoration with both engines being restored by Rolls Royce.

de Havilland Mosquito FB.26 (KA114)de Havilland Mosquito FB.26 (KA114)de Havilland Mosquito FB.26 (KA114)

de Havilland Mosquito FB.26 (KA114)  [@ Military Aviation Museum, Virginia]

The prototype Mosquito B.4 bomber, W4072, flew for the first time on 8th September 1941.  The B.4 was unarmed and could carry one 1000lb bomb and two 500lb bombs internally for 1,200 miles at 380 mph.  Later on it was modified to carry a 4000lb bomb (blockbuster or "cookie") with a bulged bomb-bay.  It was powered by 2 Merlin 21s and later 23s.  The first B.4s went to No 105 Squadron at RAF Marham, Norfolk, in May 1942, and made their first operational sortie on the 31st  of the month.  Five aircraft were sent in daylight to Cologne to photograph the damage caused by the previous night’s 1000-bomber raid and to drop a few bombs.  One Mosquito was hit by flak and crashed in the North Sea.  The first bombing of Berlin in daylight was made by B.4s on 30th January 1943.  Total production of the B.4, which eventually equipped 12 squadrons, was 273 aircraft.  The B.5 was a proposed development of the B.4 with underwing pylons for 2 x 500lb bombs or 2 x 50 gallon jettisonable wing tanks and Merlin 23 engines but none were built, while the B.7 was the Canadian version of the B.4 and was powered by Packard Merlin 31 engines driving standard Hamilton propellers.  A total of 25 were built.  The first high-altitude bomber version was the B.9 of which 54 were built and powered by Merlin 72s.  Capacity for four 500lb bombs in the fuselage and two 500lb bombs on the wings or extra fuselage fuel tanks and 50 gallon jettisonable wing tanks.  A few were converted to take one 4000lb bomb in the fuselage with two 50 gallon jettisonable wing tanks which were later in 1944 replaced by 100 gallon jettisonable wing tanks subject to a weight limitation of 25,200lb.  A Pathfinder version was developed by the RAF.

KA114 is currently the only airworthy Mosquito.  Built by de Havilland at Downsview, Ontario as an early production FB.26 and powered by two 1620hp Packard Merlin 225's.  Delivered to the RCAF on 22nd February 1945 and placed directly into storage.  On the 25th February 1945 KA114 was transferred to 7 OTU based at Debert, Nova Scotia, before returning to storage on 20th April 1945 as RCAF Station Debert was due close on 20th June 1945.  By the 23rd May KA114 had been reassigned to 2 Air Command reserve storage and latter to 103 Reserve Equipment Maintenance Satellite (REMS) at Vulcan, Alberta.  Finally KA114 was Struck off Charge on 13th April 1948 because it was deemed surplus to requirements.  Later in the year KA114 was acquired by a farmer in Milo, Alberta, where it was systematically stripped for parts until 1978.  Although KA114 was disposed of at RCAF Vulcan it is highly unlikely that KA114 flew there.  Throughout the WW2 RCAF Vulcan as a part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) and from 3rd May 1943 until 14th April 1945 it was the home of 19 Service Flying Training School (SFTS) which trained future bomber pilots.  A variety of training aircraft were used over the life of the base including Tiger Moths, Harvards, and Oxfords but predominantly Avro Ansons.  The remains, which were found to be in a very poor condition with both engines and undercarriage units missing, were acquired by Canadian Museum of Flight in Vancouver in 1979.  During the process of  recovery the fuselage forward of the wing disintegrated and the fuselage remains broke in two but the rest of the components remained intact.  During 2004 KA114 were transported to New Zealand for restoration.  The first flight at Ardmore Airport of the fully restored KA114 was on 27th September 2012 and during March 2013 KA114 was shipped back to USA.  In the photographs KA114 is painted in the livery of an FB.6 of 487 Squadron RNZAF.  [The photographs of KA114 are by the kind permission of Don Koshute]

de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TJ138)de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TJ138)de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TJ138)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TJ138) [@ RAF Hendon]

Merlin76TJ138 was originally delivered to 27 MU at RAF Shawbury on the 28th August 1945 and subsequently placed into storage.  On the 31st August 1950 TJ138 was allocated to 98 Squadron based at RAF Celle in Germany and latter RAF Fassberg.  The Squadron had converted to the Mosquito in September 1945 and in February 1951 it reequipped with the de Havilland Vampire FB5.  This makes TJ138 the only surviving B.35 to see RAF squadron service.  On the 20th February 1951 TJ138 returned to the UK and was placed into with 38 MU based at RAF Llandow, South Wales.  Taken out of storage on the 15th July 1953 and flown to Brooklands Aviation Ltd, Sywell, for conversion to TT.35 standard.  Allocated on the 8th March 1954 to 5 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit (CAACU) based at RAF LLanbedr, North West Wales, and flew alongside similar equipped Bristol Beaufighters, de Havilland Vampires and Gloster Meteors5 CAACU, a Short Bros & Harland-operated unit, moved to RAF Woodvale, Lancashire, on the 1st January 1958 and was primarily reequipped with Gloster Meteor F.8s, T.7s and TT.20 variants until its disbandment in June 1971.  Meanwhile TJ138 was reallocated during May 1958 to another Short Bros & Harland-operated unit the THUM (Temperature and Humidity) Flight which was also based at RAF Woodvale.  The THUM Flight had operated the RAF's last three Spitfires until June 1957 and they were replaced with Mosquitoes which made the daily high altitude flights until serviceability problems prompted their replacement by radar-tracked balloons.  TJ138 flew the very last ‘Thum’ flight on the 1st May 1959 thus completing the last of some 2,800 sorties flown by the Flight in just over 8 years.  The readings taken by the Flight greatly helped advance the science of understanding weather systems and enabling more accurate short-term forecasting.  The Mosquitoes were initially passed to 5 CAACU before being transferred on the 9th June 1959 to 27 MU at RAF Shawbury for storage and disposal.  On 29th July 1959 TJ138 was declared a non-effective airframe and allocated for exhibition purposes.  TJ138 finally arrived at RAF Hendon on the 6th February 1992.  In the photographs TJ138 is in the post-war colours of 98 Squadron.

Following on was the B.16, a pressurized high-altitude bomber variant, powered by Merlin 72s, 73s, 76s [photograph - above] or 77s.  By 1944 the armament was confined to one 4,000lb bomb or six 500lb bombs in a bulged bomb bay in addition to two 100 gallon drop tanks.  Four hundred were built and it remained in service for some time after 1946.  Two hundred and forty five B.20s, a Canadian version of the B.4, were built and fitted with the Packard Merlin 31s or 33s.  To make use of Packard Merlin 69 engines the B.23 was an intended Canadian equivalent of the B.9None were constructed because sufficient supplies of Packard Merlin 225 engines became available.

However 400 B.25s, a Canadian variant of the B.20, were constructed with Packard Merlin 225 engines delivering 1,620 hp.  The majority were delivered to the RAF.  On 12th March 1945 the last bomber variant of the Mosquito, the B.35, made its first test flight.  It was an improved B.16 and powered by the Merlin 114s and later 114A engines.  274 were built, mostly post-war, and it entered service in 1946 with 109 and 139 Squadrons.  The war had ended before the B.35 variant could be used operationally but the type entered service with the post-war RAF and served as a bomber until the beginning of 1954. 

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS709)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS709)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS709)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS709)  [@ National Museum of the USAF, Ohio]

The Mosquito NF.2 night fighter prototype was completed with Al Mk 4 radar in a ‘solid’ nose and a powerful armament of four 20mm (0.79in) cannon and four 0.303 machine guns in the nose.  The first Mosquito night fighter squadron, No 157, was formed at Debden in Essex on 13th December 1941 and entered active service in January 1942.  Seventeen squadrons were eventually armed with the NF.2, 466 of which were built and were all powered by Merlin 21s.

RS709 was built in 1946 by Airspeed as a B.35 powered Merlin 113/1145 and went on to serve with RAF Squadrons 109 and 139(Jamaica).  From November 1952 RS709 was converted into a TT.35 and was operated by 3 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit (CAACU) based at Exeter until 1963.  CAACU units were formed for target towing, testing and instrument calibration for the RAF, Army and Navy.  They operated many famous aircraft types from the war such as Supermarine Spitfires, Mosquitos, Bristol Beaufighters, and Avro Ansons as well as post war types such as de Havilland Vampires, Gloster Meteors and from 1960, Hawker Hunters.  When Struck off Charge RS709 was acquired by the Skyframe Museum, Staverton, Gloucestershire, from 1963 until 1969 when the museum closed.  During this period RS709 flew in the making of the film "633 Squadron" (about a fictional squadron) filmed at former RAF Bovington, Hertfordshire, during July 1963 and during June 1968 in the making of the film "Mosquito Squadron" which was also filmed at Bovington.  From August 1969 RS709 was transported to the USA and then had a number of private owners before being acquired by the USAF Museum during July 1984.  In the photographs RS709 is in the USAAF livery of NS519, a PR.16 of the 653rd Bomber Squadron, 25th Bombardment Group (Reconnaissance) at RAF Watton, Norfolk, and was used as a weather reconnaissance aircraft.  Probably built at Hatfield and delivered in the spring of 1944, NS519 crashed on take-off on 27th December 1944 at RAF Watton (USAAF Station 376).  The 25th Bombardment Group (Reconnaissance) was formed at RAF Watton as the 802nd Reconnaissance Group in February 1944.  The unit was renamed the 25th on 9th August 1944.  The 653rd Bomber Squadron was equipped with PR.16 Mosquitos and was mainly used on flights over the continent of Europe to observe weather conditions over target areas in advance of attacking bomber forces.  Occasionally the PR.16s were used for last minute "scout" flights to determine whether targets were open to visual attack and for chaff (countermeasure) dispensers.  The Squadron was formed on 17th July 1944 and were active from 9th August 1944 to 19th December 1945.  NS519 was one of the two US Mosquitos that accompanied American aircraft based in Great Britain and southern Italy to three Soviet airfields in Ukraine on Operation Frantic.  In total, seven shuttle bombing operations were completed between June and September 1944.  During the four months of major operations, 24 targets in German-held territory, some never before within effective range of the American strategic bomber forces, were attacked.  The RAF did not share some of the US objectives and Winston Churchill believed the operation was not worthwhile.  On 5th July NS519 was forced to abort on the flight back from one of these missions when at 25,000 ft the port propeller ran away.  NS519 returned to Italy and was repaired by an RAF unit back in Italy before the crew returned to RAF Watton a few days later.  [The photographs of RS709 are by the kind permission of Don Koshute]

de Havilland Mosquito NF.2 (HJ711)de Havilland Mosquito NF.2 (HJ711)de Havilland Mosquito NF.2 (HJ711)

de Havilland Mosquito NF.2 (HJ711) [@ RAF Elvington]

The NF.10 was intended to be the NF.2 development variant with Merlin 61 engines but none were built.  Ninety-seven NF.2s were later converted to NF.12 standard.  DD715, which first flew August 1942, was the prototype NF.12.  Powered by Merlin 21 or 23s but with the machine guns removed and an upgraded radar to the AI Mk 8 centimetric type 270 NF.13s followed them and was the production counterpart of the NF.12.  The NF.13 was similar to the NF.12 but with auxiliary under-wing tanks.  The NF.14 was an intended development of the NF.13 with Merlin 67 engines.  None were built but 5 NF.15s powered by Merlin 61 engines were built.  The NF.15 was a specialised high-altitude conversion variant of the NF.13 and served with 85 Squadron during the war, operating at heights up to 44,600 ft.  It featured extended wing tips, reduced fuel tankage and four .303in machine guns in a blister under the fuselage.  The NF.17 was a NF.2 conversion fitted with centimetric AI Mk 10 radar in a more bulbous nose and approximately 100 NF.2 conversions were made.  The NF.19 was similar to the NF.13 but powered by Merlin 25s and was able to take either British or American radar sets.  Prototype DZ659 first flew in April 1944 and 220 were built; it entered service with 157 Squadron in May 1944.  In 1948-49 45 were overhauled and fitted with four blade airscrews and supplied to the Royal Swedish Air Force who designated the aircraft the J.30.

HJ711 was built at Hatfield in May 1943 as one of 150 aircraft order which was placed on 9th February 1941.  Fitted with Merlin 21 engines HJ711 entered RAF service with 141 Squadron based at RAF Wittering, Cambridgeshire, during October 1943.  In February 1943 141 Squadron moved to Predannack on The Lizard Peninsula of Cornwall and began to fly intruder missions over north-west France using Bristol Beaufighter Is.  At the end of April the squadron moved to RAF Wittering and in June began to fly intruder missions over German night fighter airfields in support of Bomber Command using Bristol Beaufighter VIs.  Reequipped with Mosquitoes from October 1943 the squadron in December joined No. 100 Group, which was Bomber Command's dedicated support group. The squadron's aircraft now joined the main bomber stream, attacking enemy night fighters and airfields.  From 1944 the Mosquitoes of 100 Group claimed 258 Luftwaffe aircraft shot down for 70 losses.  The gradually increasing threat from the RAF fighters also created what the Luftwaffe crews nicknamed “Moskito Panik” as the night fighter crews were never sure when or where they may come under attack from the marauding 100 Group fighters.  Formed on 11th November 1943 to be responsible for electronic warfare and countermeasures the Group was headquartered at Bylaugh Hall, Norfolk, from January 1944.  The Group operated from eight airfields with approximately 260 aircraft, 140 of which were various marks of Mosquito night fighter intruders, with the remainder consisting of Halifaxes, Stirlings, Wellingtons, B.17 Fortresses and Liberators carrying electronic jamming equipment.  In January 1944 HJ711 had been reallocated to 169 Squadron based at RAF Little Snoring, Norfolk.  From October 1943 to early January 1944 the Squadron had been retrained on the Mosquito T Mk.IIIs, having previously flown the North American Mustang Is in the fighter and ground attack roles, so that the Squadron could join 100 Group flying Mosquito NF.2s.  HJ711 was credited with the Squadron's first victory when it downed a Bf 110 over Berlin while being flown by Squadron Leader J.A.H. Cooper on 30th January 1944.  Unfortunately, HJ711 was reported missing from a bomber support mission to Stuttgart on 16th March 1944.  Restoration of HJ711 began on 29th April 1972 when the derelict cockpit section of  HJ711 and other items including a rudder were obtained at the sale of the Reflectaire Museum collection at Blackpool.  The wing came from a B.16, PF498, which had previously served with 627, 109 and 139 Squadrons and had been used by the Civil Defence for crash rescue training at Chorley in Lancashire.  Additional wing parts came from a long-derelict Royal Navy T.3, VA878, which had crashed at St. David's airfield in South Wales through a boundary fence when an engine failed on takeoff.  A pair of Merlin engines came from a NF.30, NT616, that had served with 29 Squadron and were recovered from a scrap yard at Cosford.  The rear fuselage came from a B.35, RS715, that had served with both 3 and 4 CAACU (Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit) and was S.o.C (Struck Off Charge) on 18th September 1961.  The part was obtained from the MGM Studio store at Borehamwood.  The wing tips came from Scotland along with many other components from all over the UK.  When the restoration project became too large for a domestic garage in 1986 it was moved to the museum.  The aim of the Night Fighter Preservation Team is to return HJ711 to taxiing condition.

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS712)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS712)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS712)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (RS712)  [@ EAA Aviation Museum, Wisconsin]

Built in 1946 by Airspeed at Christchurch, Dorset, as a B35 fitted with Merlin 113/114 engines and on entering RAF service RS712 was placed into storage.  On 30th November 1951 RS712 was delivered to Sywell Aerodrome, Northamptonshire, for conversion to a TT.35 by Brooklands Aviation.  Following conversion in May 1952 RS712 was delivered to 27 MU based at RAF Shawbury, Shropshire.  On 31st December 1953 RS712 was allocated to 1 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit (CAACU) based at Hornchurch, Essex.  When the unit closed RS712 was again placed into storage but on 28th February 1958 RS712 was briefly relocated to the 2nd Tactical Airforce (TTF) and entered service with the Target Tug flight of the Armament Practice Section based at RAF Schleswigland, Germany.  During April 1958 the RAF “closed” RAF Schleswigland and turned the southern part of the field over to German control while the northern part of the airfield was handed over to the German Navy during October 1959.  It wasn't until November 1961 when the RAF finally left the last building on the base.  Upon return to the UK RS712 was delivered on 29th April 1958 to 3 CAACU based at Exeter.  Struck off Charge in mid-1961 RS712 was purchased by Mirisch Films on 31st July 1961 for the filming “633 Squadron” at RAF Bovingdon.  Flying as RF580/HT-F RS712 was suitably camouflaged and fitted with dummy machine nose guns for the making of the film.  Although the film features a fictitious RAF squadron it does echo the famous “Operation Jericho” low-level raid on the 18th February 1944, a combined RAF/Maquis raid, in which French Resistance and political prisoners were freed from the Amiens jail.  Although there has been much debate about who requested the attack and whether it was necessary, it was never the less, a breath taking precise and daring low level attack.  140 Wing of the RAF 2nd Tactical Air Force based at RAF Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, were chosen to carry out the raid.  Led by the famous Group Captain Percy Charles Pickard (DSO and two bars, DFC), in "F" for Freddie (HX922 ‘EG-F’) of 487 Squadron RNZAF, he was shot down with his navigator F/Lt John Alan Broadley by two Fw 190s of 7/JG 26 at the end of the attack and is buried at St Pierre Cemetery near Amiens.  He led 18 Mosquito FB.6s of 464 Squadron RAAF, 487 Squadron RNZAF and 21 Squadron RAF on the raid with close escort being provided by Hawker Typhoons from RAF Squadrons 198 and 174.  After the filming was complete RS712 was placed into storage and then purchased in September 1972 by the Strathallan Museum which was located at Strathallan Airfield, near Auchterardar, Scotland.  RS712 was flown to the museum on 8th November 1975 and remained there until its closure.  Sold to a US owner in June 1981 and following a restoration to full flying condition RS712 was eventually flown to Florida (a twenty five and a half hours flight) during 1987.  Last flown during 1989 RS712 is now displayed at the EAA Museum with the code EG-F to represent the Mosquito flown by Group Captain Pickard during the “Operation Jericho” raid.  [The photographs of RS712 are by the kind permission of Don Koshute]

Flt Lt John CunninghamThe next night fighter variant was the NF.30 and a development of the NF.19 but with two-stage Merlin 72 and later Merlin 76 and 113 engines.  It was un-pressurised and fitted with either AI Mk 8 or 10 radar.  The prototype, MM686, first flew in March 1944 with a total of 530 eventually being constructed; the variant served for some years post-war.  The USAAF 416th NFS (Night Fighter Squadron) in Italy used NF.30s during the latter part of the war and claimed one kill.  In fact, the Mosquito flew in several US Army Air Force units, not just as a night fighter but also in the photographic and weather reconnaissance roles.  During the war, the USAAF acquired 40 Canadian built Mosquitos and flew them under the F-8 (photo reconnaissance) designation.  In addition, the British Government supplied more than 100 Mosquitoes to the USAAF under a Reverse Lend-Lease Agreement. These aircraft retained their RAF designations.  Meanwhile the NF.31 was an intended Packard Merlin 69 variant of the NF.30 but none were constructed.  The NF.36 was similar to the NF.30 but with the Merlin 113 and US AI Mk 10 radar of which 236 were constructed.  The engines were 9 in longer than the earlier Merlin's and to compensate for the change in the centre of gravity extra weights were added to the elevators.  The NF.38 was similar to the NF.36 but with British AI Mk IX radar, a lengthened cockpit enclosure and Merlin 114 and 114A engines.  A total of 101 were built, of which most were sold to the Yugoslav Air Force.

Flt Lt John Cunningham attained a legendary status that few have equalled.  His wartime fame as an outstanding night-fighter ace was followed by a long career in test-flying during the exciting post-war period when the jet engine was developed to power both military and civil aircraft.  As Chief Test Pilot for the de Havilland Aircraft Company he was at the leading edge of the quest for supersonic flight and in the development of the Comet - the World's first jet airliner.  As 'Cat's-Eyes Cunningham' he became a household name during the bombing blitz of Britain.  His feats actually owed less to the good night vision [attributed to eating carrots] ascribed to him than to the mosquito's excellent airborne interception radar (which the authorities were painfully anxious to keep a secret, hence the propaganda connection between carrots and good night vision).  In partnership with Jimmy Rawnsley, his navigator, he was the first squadron pilot in the world to shoot down an enemy aircraft using radar.

de Havilland Mosquito NF.30 (RK952/MB-24)de Havilland Mosquito NF.30 (RK952/MB-24)de Havilland Mosquito NF.30 (RK952/MB-24)

 de Havilland Mosquito NF.30 (RK952/MB-24)  [@ Koninklijk Leger Museum, Brussels]

Built by the de Havilland at Leavesden RK952 was one 27 NF.30 night fighter variants to be built in a contract to supply, in total, 345 Mosquitoes. First flown on the 22nd May 1945 RK952 entered RAF service with 218 MU at RAF Colerne on the 25th May 1945 for radar and electronics installation.  With WW2 coming to an end RK952 was not delivered to an operational unit but instead was transferred to 10 MU based at Hullavington on the 11th July 1945 to be stored.  In 1947 the Belgian Air Force established Mosquito NF.30 night fighter squadrons and 22 of the 24 Mosquitos that were sold to Belgium being ex RAF WW.2 veterans.  The first four were delivered in November 1947 and entered service on the 25th May 1948 with the 1st Wing at Beauvechain.  In 1951 two additional NF.30s were ordered (MB-23 and MB-24), unfortunately MB-23 crashed in the UK before delivery leaving RK952 to be the only sale on the 23rd October 1951.  RK952 was delivered on the 4th September 1953 after undergoing updating by Fairey Aviation at Ringway and so became the last Mosquito to be delivered to Belgium.  By the time MB-24 (RK952) entered service the oldest NF.30's were already in the process of being withdrawn and replaced with Gloster Meteor NF.11s.  However due to its update MB-24 continued to fly with the 10 Squadron of the 1st Wing at Beauvechain until its last flight on the 18th August 1955. S.o.C at Beauvechain on the 17th October 1956 MB-24 was transferred to the museum on the 17th March 1957.

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA639)  [@ RAF Cosford]

It was the Mosquito NF.2 that provided the basis for the FB.6 fighter-bomber, of which 2718 were built during and after the war and it remained in service with the RAF in occupied Germany until 1950.  The first FB.6 was a converted NF.2, HJ662, and this flew for the first time on 1st June 1942.  The FB.6 also equipped some of Coastal Command’s strike wings and also some squadrons of  No 2 Group specializing in low-level precision attacks.  The FB.6 carried four 250 lb bombs (series 1) in addition to the eight gun armament or four 500 lb bombs (series 2).  Alternatively extra fuel could be carried in 50 gallon jettisonable wing tanks or extra tankage in the fuselage behind the cannon.  Series 2 aircraft also featured the Merlin 25 engine.  418 Squadron was the first to be equipped with this variant during May 1943.  Provision was made in 1944 to carry four 60lb rockets under each wing in place of the wing tanks or bombs for attacks on shipping.

After construction by de Havilland at Hatfield, TA639 was placed directly into storage with 27 MU at RAF Shawbury on the 13th April 1945.  Removed from storage on the 19th May 1952 and sent to Brooklands Aviation Ltd for conversion to Target Tug standard before transfer for duties to Northern Ireland.  By 16th January 1957 TA639 was back in storage first with 38 MU, RAF Llandow, then back with 27 MU at RAF Shawbury.  With just over 100 flying hours TA639 was transferred on the 24th September 1959 to 3 CAACU (Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit) at Exeter until being S.o.C on the 31st May 1963.  During June/July/September of 1963 TA639 was extensively used in the making of the ‘633 Squadron' film (one of five airworthy and three taxiable Mosquitoes - all ex 3 CAACU).  After the filming was completed TA639 was used for personal/display use by the Commandant at Little Rissington until, with just over 600 flying hours on the clock, TA639s last flight on the 3rd October 1965.  Transferred by road to the RAF museum store at RAF Henlow in August 1967 TA639 finally arrived at RAF Cosford in the September of 1969.  In the photograph TA639 wears the markings of the Mosquito XX of 627 Squadron, AZ-E, in which Wing Commander Guy Gibson VC lost his life on the 19th September 1944.  It is in a full late war camouflage scheme with dark green and grey upper surfaces and black under sides, wing and fuselage roundels.

anti-tank Molins gunThe FB.10 was an intended FB.6 development with Merlin 101 engines but none were built.  Similarly none were built of the FB.11 variant which was an intended development of the FB.6 with Merlin 61engines.  The FB.18, an FB.6 conversion, carried eight rockets and two 227kg (500lb) bombs and was armed with a single 57mm (six-pounder) anti-tank Molins gun in a modified nose instead of the 4 x 20mm cannon [photograph - left].  The Molins could fire 25 shells in 20 seconds.  Known as the Mosquito ‘Tsetse’ this variant, of which 27 FB.6s were converted, was used by 248 and 254 Squadrons of Coastal Command against submarines and shipping.  The FB.21 was the Canadian equivalent of the FB.6.  Only three were built, one was fitted with Packard Merlin 33s while the other two were fitted with Packard Merlin 31 engines.  Only one FB.24, an intended high altitude Canadian version of the FB.21, was constructed and it was powered by Packard Merlin 301s.  Finally the FB.26 was similar to the FB.21 but with Packard Merlin 225 engines and Canadian-American equipment.  Most of the 337 that were built were used by the RAF in the Middle East.

 de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA634)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA634)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA634)  [@ de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre]

de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TA634)   de Havilland Mosquito B.35 (TA634)

Inside the cockpit of TA634

TA634 was built in 1945 as a B.35 and was one of the final Mosquitoes to be built at Hatfield.  Following storage TA634 was later modified for target tug work.  Serving with 4 CAACU (Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit) and then with 3 CAACU at Exeter, TA634 was retired in 1959.  Sold on 6th November 1963 to the City of Liverpool Corporation, Speake, with the intention to to be displayed but in fact TA634 was stored in an hanger.  Eventually rebuilt to an airworthy condition and registered as G-AWJV, TA 634 flew for the first time 17th June 1968 and flew in the making of the film "'Mosquito Squadron" which was filmed at RAF Bovington.  Last flown in July 1968 before being donated to the Museum on 7th October 1970.  Restored for static display during the 1980s TA634 is shown in the photograph in the colours of NX992/EF-G of 571 Squadron (RAF) of the Late Night Strike Force.  Formed on 7th April 1944 at RAF Downham Market, Norfolk, as part of the No. 8 (Pathfinder) Group, the squadron was equipped with Mosquitos B.16s and was tasked to carry out independent raids on German industrial targets with each B.16 carried a single 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) "Cookie" bomb.

The PR Mosquito was the first into service, being issued to No 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit at RAF Benson, Oxfordshire, in September 1941.  The first operational sortie was flown on 20th September.  Some NF.2s were converted into PR.2s and twenty seven B.4s were converted to take cameras and hence became PR.4s.  Interestingly a variant of the PR.4 was supplied to BOAC as the prototype Mosquito courier-transport.  The two passengers laid on their backs in the felt-padded bomb bay.  Following on was the first high altitude Mosquito the PR.8 since the PR.5 was not put into production.  Similar to the PR.4, a B.4 conversion, the PR.8 was powered by the Merlin 61 but only five were built.  DZ570 was the prototype PR.9 and it first flew on 24th March 1943.  The PR.9, a B.9 conversion, was similar to the PR.8 but with Merlin 72 engines so it could attain higher altitudes.  90 were built and the variant entered service with 540 Squadron in April 1943.  Used by the RAF and US 8th Air Force for meteorological reconnaissance over Europe before all major day and night bombing raids.  Powered by Merlin 73’s the prototype PR.16, MM258, flew in July 1943 and was similar to the PR.9 but with a pressurized cockpit.  499 were built, of which, 79 were supplied to the USAAF under a "reverse" Lend-Lease arrangement.  In addition to photo-reconnaissance missions the USAAF employed its PR.16s as chaff dispensers, scouts for the heavy bomber force and on “Redstocking” J-E missions for the US Office of Strategic Services (OSS) The PR.16, a B.16 conversion, had three extra fuel tanks fitted in the bomb bay.  In addition to the cameras carried in the fuselage, one F.52 camera could be carried in each drop tank.  The PR.32 was a high altitude version of the PR.16 with extended wing tips.  In all five were built and they served with 540 Squadron until November 1945.  With the war in the Far East needing a long-range version of the Mosquito the PR.34, with a range of 3,600 miles, became available.  It was basically a PR.16 with extra fuel tanks in a bulged fuselage and wing drop tanks.  Powered by Merlin 113s or 114s, the first production aircraft flew on 4th December 1944 and its equipment included four F.52 vertical and one F.24 oblique cameras.  This was the fastest version of the Mosquito managing 422mph in level flight.  A number of PR.34 was converted with modified Gee and the Merlin 114A engines to PR.34A standard.  This variant was the last in RAF front-line service with the final flight being made on 15th December 1955 by RG314 of 81 Squadron.  Ten B.35s were converted for flashlight photography and became the PR.35 variant.

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA719)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA719)  [@ RAF Duxford]

The T.3 was an unarmed dual control conversion of an NF.2 with Merlin 21 or 23 engines.  The prototype first flew on 30th January 1942 with delivery starting in September 1942 to the Mosquito Training Unit.  The T.3 remained in RAF service until 1955.  Six FB.21s were converted to dual control and became the T.22 while 21 T.27 were constructed.  These were similar to the T.22 but powered by Packard Merlin 225s.  The T.29 was another dual control conversion and of the 61 aircraft produced 60 were FB.26 conversions with one new build.

A total of 135 B.35s was converted for target-towing (TT) duties and in this role they continued in service until 1963.   The TT.35 was fitted with a ML type G wind driven winch under the forward fuselage.   26 B.16s were converted to target towing specification Q.19/45 for the Royal Navy.   The TT.39, a another B16 conversion, featured an extended and heavily glazed nose.  In addition several B.35s were modified for meteorological work as the Met.35.

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA719)de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA719)

de Havilland Mosquito B.35/TT.35 (TA719)  [@ RAF Duxford]

Designed to specification N.15/44 the TR.33 was a specialised naval variant "Sea Mosquito".  Built as a carrier-borne torpedo reconnaissance (TR) aircraft it was a variation of the FB.6.  It was fitted with an arrestor hook on a strengthened the rear fuselage, manually operated folding wings, four-blade propellers, provision for JATO and thimble radome to take ASH radar.  The prototype, LR359, a partly converted FB.6, flew on 25th March 1944 while the first of 50 Merlin 66 powered production aircraft, TW227, flew on 10th November 1945.  The TR.37 was similar to the TR.33 but with British ASV Mk 13B radar in an enlarged nose.  Powered by Merlin 25s a total of 14 were constructed.

The Mosquito was also built under licence in Australia and the marks included the FB.40, PR.40, PR.41, FB.42 and T.43.  None of the Australian variants served with the RAF.  The FB.40 was the first Australian built Mosquito and was based on the FB.6 with Hamilton Standard or Australian built de Havilland hydromatic propellers.  The first 100 aircraft were built with Packard Merlin 31s and later Packard Merlin 33 engines.

TA719 was probably by Percival Aircraft Ltd at Luton and delivered to the RAF in July 1945 as a B.35.  Subsequently placed in storage for six years, with various maintenance units, TA719 was flown to Brooklands Aviation Ltd at Sywell for a short period on the 9th August 1951 before being returned to store.  On the 15th August 1953 TA719 was again flown to Brooklands Aviation Ltd for conversion to TT.35 standard which included the fitting of a target-towing winch in the bomb bay and guards on the tail surfaces and tailwheel.  Thereafter TA19 served with 4 CAACU (Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit) at Exeter from the 30th June 1954 then with 3 CAACU at Exeter as target tug “56” until retirement during March 1963.  TA719 was probably on the last Mosquitos to leave active service.  Flown to 27 MU based at RAF Shawbury for disposal before being sold to the Skyfame Collection based at Staverton, Gloucestershire, and was given the civil registration G-ASKC.  On the 8th July 1963 TA719 was loaned to Film Aviation Services and flown to RAF Bovingdon to be repainted as HJ898 with code letters HT-G for the making of the 1964 British war film “633 Squadron”.  Mostly shot in Scotland TA719 operated from Dalcross, Inverness, from the 16th August to the 17th September.  Following completion of filming TA719 was delivered to the Skyfame Collection during the following December with the intention of keeping TA719 airworthy.  Unfortunately following a flying accident at Staverton on the 27th July 1964 in which the port wing, outboard of the engine, was severely damaged, along with the nacelles and fuselage underside, the Civil Aviation Authority cancelled the registration G-ASKC on the 3rd September 1964.  Officially classified as "Permanently Withdrawn From Use" (PWFU) TA719 underwent temporary repairs, including the fitting of a dummy wing.  During 1968 TA719 participated in a static role in the filming of the 1969 British war film “Mosquito Squadron” at MGM Borehamwood Studios.  Unfortunately during the filming of a crash landing scene TA719 was damaged by fire.  TA719 arrived at RAF Duxford in 1978, with the majority of the Skyfame collection after its closure, and underwent detailed restoration.  Now hung from the ceiling in the airspace hangar at Duxford, TA719 was first photograph during restoration and later in distinctive target towing colours.

The PR.40 was a photo-reconnaissance conversion of the FB.40 with Packard Merlin 31 engines while the PR.41 was similar to the PR.40 but with extra radio gear and Packard Merlin 69 engines.  Similarly the FB.42 was an adaptation of the FB.40 to take the Packard Merlin 69 engine.  After testing the project was dropped and the aircraft became the prototype for the PR.41.  The T.43 was yet another FB.40 conversion and was almost identical except for the addition of dual controls and dual elevator trim tabs.

The total Mosquito production reached 7781 aircraft, 6710 of which were built during the war years.